Attributes go on the first rung. Take Colgate toothpaste as an example. Here fluoride acts as the attribute. For a laptop brand, attributes can be memory capacity, processor speed and screen dimension.
On the second rung, you find the functional benefits. Those are usually based on a product attribute that provides some functional utility to the consumer. An example is Head & Shoulders shampoo, where anti-dandruff is the benefit. Ariel laundry detergent is for superior stain removal. The attribute and the functional benefit are somewhat connected, meaning that for our Colgate toothpaste containing fluoride, tooth decay prevention is the functional benefit.
The top rung is where emotional benefits are found. This helps associate the brand with a positive feeling – like excitement, trust, or happiness. With ads rooted in nostalgia and family values, Patek Philippe luxury watches definitely play on that level. Colgate ads would point to the confidence that comes with having healthy teeth.